From this Wired article: Last year, the Center for Economic Opportunity reported that more than one in five New York City households lack home Internet service; among households below the poverty line, the number is more than one in three. Nationally, almost 20 percent of smartphone owners rely on that device to access the Internet. For low-­income households, the connection is often tenuous, especially once introductory rates expire. Research by Pew suggests that half of all people without home Internet and who have otherwise limited access have had to suspend or cancel their mobile service because of financial fragility. According to a report commissioned by the Roosevelt Institute, the average household spends more per year on communications services than it does on electricity or gas, and almost as much as it spends on groceries; most of that is spent on wireless and broadband. And yet almost everybody agrees that broadband is a necessity.

Pew's research is sort of the industry standard:

Nationally, in 2018 47% of Latinx people had home internet as compared to 72% of Whites... 

NYC Mayor's Office of the CTO report:


Interesting article on both rural and urban divides (& divides in small cities)
 Closing the digital and economic divides in rur...

Also interesting on immigrant populations in upstate NY: